Bread is a nutritious food with a soft, sweet taste that both adults and children like. Bread is fermented and baked, and starch and protein are partially broken down into small molecules with simple structure and easy to digest. The spongy tissue structure of bread can store saliva during chewing, thereby increasing the effect of various digestive enzymes and bread.
The main technological process of bread production: pretreatment of raw and auxiliary materials → mixing of dough → fermentation → shaping production → proofing of bread blanks → baking → cooling and packaging of bread.
- Pretreatment of raw and auxiliary materials
The flour should be sieved before feeding to remove impurities and form loose and fine particles. It can also be mixed with a certain amount of air, which is conducive to the formation of dough and the growth and reproduction of yeast, and promotes the fermentation and maturity of the dough.
- Dough mixing
Dough mixing should make all the raw materials fully mixed, evenly dispersed, and promote the flour to absorb water to form gluten, so that the gluten has good elasticity and extensibility, and has the ability to hold air.
- Dough fermentation
Dough fermentation is a very complex process of microbiological and biochemical changes. During the fermentation process of the dough, the yeast multiplies in large quantities, producing carbon dioxide gas, which promotes the expansion of the dough volume; improves the processing performance of the dough, makes it have good extensibility, reduces the elasticity, and lays the foundation for obtaining the maximum volume during the final proofing and baking of the bread; The dough and bread obtain a loose, porous, soft sponge-like structure and structure; the bread has an attractive aromatic flavor.
- Dough shaping
Making the fermented dough into a certain shape of the bread embryo is called shaping. Dough shaping includes such processes as dividing, weighing, rounding, proofing in the middle, forming, and loading into trays (moulding).
- Bread baking
The proofed bread is sent to the oven, and under the action of heat, it is made into bread with loose structure, easy digestion and special aroma.
- Bread cooling and packaging
The freshly baked bread has a high temperature, crispy skin and soft flesh, and no elasticity. If immediately packed or sliced, subject to crushing or bumping. It will inevitably cause fracture, breakage or deformation. Therefore, the bread must be cooled after it comes out of the oven.